What is
Base Oil

  • Definition

    Base oil is the main raw material of all lubricant products.
    Like basic petroleum oil products such as gasoline, kerosene and diesel, Since it is derived from crude oil, it is called "mineral base oil".
    In the other hand, base oils obtained through chemical synthesis are called “chemical synthetic base oil”.
    Lubricants has complex composition and varying viscosity. Above other ingredients, the quality of base oil is very important as they occupy high proportion in lubricants.

  • API Classification

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    API Classification
    Viscosity grade Saturated hydrocarbon Sulfur Viscosity index
    Group Ⅰ < 90%And / Or < 0.03%And 80 ≤ Ⅵ 120
    Group Ⅱ ≥ 90%And ≥ 0.03%And 80 ≤ Ⅵ 120
    Group Ⅲ ≥ 90%And ≥ 0.03%And Ⅵ ≥ 120
    Group Ⅳ PAO(Poly Alpha Olefin)
    Group Ⅴ Ester & Others
  • Classification By Viscosity


      "Neutal" comes from the characteristic of base oil that the acid atmospheric residue is changed into neutral oil after treating.
      It is mainly indicated by adding N to the SUS viscosity value at 100 °F(37.8 °C).

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    Number 40℃ 100℃
    cSt SUS cSt SUS
    70N 13.3 70.8 3.0 37.0
    100N 21.5 104.0 4.0 39.0
    150N 31.6 148.0 4.9 42.4
    250N 56.1 257.0 6.5 47.0
    500N 107.0 496.0 11.0 64.0
    600N 130.4 604.0 12.1 66.0

      "Bright stock" comes from the characteristicthat very turbid and black oil is turned into bright oil.
      Generally, solvent is used to distill the residue under reduced pressure. Manufactured by De-waxing and Hydro-treating.
      Since it very high-viscosity base oil, it is mainly mixed with low-viscosity base oil for adjusting viscosity of lubricants.

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    Bright Stock
    Number 40℃ 100℃
    cSt SUS cSt SUS
    135BS 413.2 1875.0 28.6 135.0
    150BS 568.0 2632.0 33.0 155.0
    175BS 654.7 3034.0 36.0 169.7
  • Classification By Composition

    Basically, the composition of mineral oil is mostly influenced by the crude oil used for the first time.
    However, it is not simply purified by fractionation or extraction recently.
    Since base oils are often manufactured by reactions such as conversion, the composition of the final base oil product is very different from that of the original crude oil because it is less influenced by crude oil.

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    Classification By Composition
    Classification Paraffin, % Naphthen, % Aromatics, %
    Paraffin Base Oil 45~60 20~30 15~25
    Naphthenic Base Oil 15~25 65~75 ~10
    Aromatic Base Oil ~5 60~75 20~25